9. Pacemaker & Defibrillator
Pacemakers and defibrillators have saved countless lives over the years. The former regulates the heartbeat with electrical impulses, while the latter can restart the heart in the case of dysrhythmia. Some patients awaiting surgery for a pacemaker will wear an external defibrillator to automatically shock their heart in the case of a near-fatal dysrhythmia.
Jewish American cardiologist Paul Zoll was one of the pioneers in the development of both the cardiac pacemaker and defibrillator.